Subject to the Citizenship Act, a person is a citizen if they:
- Were born in Canada after February 14, 1977;
- Were born outside Canada after February 14, 1977, and at the time of their birth, at least one of their parents was born in Canada, or was a naturalized Canadian citizen; or
- In certain cases, persons who were born in Canada before February 14, 1977, or born outside Canada to a Canadian citizen parent before February 14, 1977, are also considered citizens. Persons who previously lost their Canadian citizenship may also be eligible.
Individuals who do not meet one of the above-noted criteria may become Canadian citizens by applying for a grant of citizenship.
Canada permits dual citizenship. However, not all countries do. Therefore, a person may be required to surrender their foreign citizenship if they become a Canadian citizen.
Grant of Citizenship – Application Process
Individuals who wish to apply for a grant of Canadian citizenship are required to submit a paper-based application. At this time, Canada does not offer online citizenship applications.
To qualify, applicants must demonstrate that they have spent sufficient time physically present in Canada, and that they intend to continue residing in Canada.
Applicants between the ages of fourteen (14) and sixty-four (64), are also required to demonstrate proficiency in the English or French language, and must pass a citizenship test. The citizenship test, which must be written in English or French, without the assistance of an interpreter, requires knowledge of Canada’s political system, history and geography.
It is important that the applicant is eligible to apply for citizenship before they submit their application. If an applicant applies too early, they will not be eligible. There is no refund of the processing fee.
Grant of Citizenship – Eligibility to Apply
Applicants must have resided in Canada as a permanent resident for at least 4 years (1,460 days) within the 6 years immediately preceding the date of the application. Applicants must also be physically present in Canada for at least 183 days during each of the 4 calendar years.
In addition, applicants must have filed their Canadian income tax returns for at least 4 years within the six years immediately preceding the application; and must declare their intention to reside in Canada.
A person may no longer count time that was spent in Canada as a temporary resident towards the citizenship residency requirement. Only time spent in Canada as a permanent resident qualifies towards citizenship eligibility.
Grant of Citizenship – Children
Children under the age of 18 are not required meet the residency requirement as long as they are (i) permanent residents, and (ii) have one parent (or legal guardian) who is either a Canadian citizen, or who is applying to become a Canadian citizen.
Information on Citizenship :
- Application Process
- Eligibility to Apply
- Revocation of Citizenship
“Jacqueline Bart is an excellent immigration lawyer in Canada. Jacqueline is a specialist in immigration law certified by the Law Society of Upper Canada. She is a frequent writer and speaker on immigration law; and more importantly, I can personally attest her awesome client service.”
“Jacqueline Bart, an immigration attorney in Canada who founded the firm BartLaw has impressed me. While her substantive knowledge is superb and would in and of itself be enough to put her in the ranks of impressive, her professionalism, charisma and business intelligence place her in a higher league. I met Jacqueline at an annual conference of the American Immigration Law Association, where she was a speaker and organizer for the Global Migration portion of the event. Again, her substantive knowledge was notable, but I was even more taken by her ability to translate that knowledge to business needs.”
“We will highly recommend you to our colleagues and associates for any further visa applications.”
“Thank you so much for helping me with the Permanent Resident application!”
“I have no regrets – thanks for all the work you have done for me thus far.”
“Thank you very much for your participation in the Employing Foreign Workers program. I am aware of the time and effort you put into preparing and participating in the conference. The response we receive from [the delegates] was very positive. They found the presentations to be both informative and valuable and felt that they gained practical insights from attending the conference. We look forward to inviting you to participate in future programmes and thank you again for helping to make this conference a success.”
“We are extremely grateful for the great work and support that yourself and your team provided during this entire process. Thank you, thank you!”
“We are so lucky to have you and your team dealing with our case. Thanks a lot for your help and support!”
“Many thanks for all your help! We owe you a huge debt of gratitude as this would not have been possible without your help and expertise. A great way to end 2013!”
“Please accept our sincere thanks for your presentation of the distinguished faculty of the American Immigration Lawyers Association. We sincerely appreciate your generosity.”
“I must say I found your professionalism to be very high and will not hesitate to recommend you to anyone having needs related to the Canadian immigration law.”
“As one of our key volunteers, you have substantially contributed to the well-being of the OBA, your Section and the profession.”
“Ms. Bart is my #1 option every time someone asks me to recommend an immigration specialist.”
“For all of my Canadian in-bound issues, I always use Jacqueline Bart in Toronto. Excellent attorney.”
“Very impressed with Jacqueline and her team, so we are happy to keep Bartlaw on our preferred supplier list.”
“Jacqueline is a passionate, knowledgeable, bilingual and well connected immigration law specialist, whom I know through her membership in the prestigious International Network of Boutique Law Firms. She was chosen for the Network because of her outstanding reputation, and is deservedly well liked and respected.”
“Jacqueline is a brilliant strategist and keeps our human resources’ immigration goals on track. She has obtained permanent residence for a number of our employees in 4 months!”
“I know Jacqueline for many years and she has worked for me and my clients on immigration assignments. Jacqueline is an accomplished expert on immigration matters and her service and results are outstanding. I recommend her services with no hesitation.”
“I have worked with many attorneys on 4 continents in my career but Jacqueline tops them all! Her in-depth knowledge, her predictions and her consistent result orientation always delivered a ‘smooth’ path even on rough terrain. Her personal involvement, reliability and trustworthiness are ingredients that make her the perfect ‘partner’ for a client. Jacqueline stays focused on your issues with a high degree of personal responsibility for the outcome providing the highest degree of comfort. I am honoured to have met Jacqueline and every cent spent on her services was well spent and worthwhile.”
“I had the pleasure of using Bartlaw firm in a complex and unique law case. During years that was dealing with the case, I found Jacqueline a true professional and dedicated lawyer who passionately gets involved with details and uses her knowledge to plan the winning strategy no matter how complex the situation is. I strongly recommended her to people that want to ensure no stone left unturned in their legal case and seek justice.”
“Jacqueline is my go-to person in Canada.”
“I am in Canada, my home, today because of Jacqueline. Compassion is not a trait that usually comes to mind when I think of lawyers. However Jacqueline has it in oodles. It is, in my humble opinion, one of the cornerstones of her success. To me she is the best and #1 immigration lawyer in Canada and the world.”
“Jacqueline Bart is top notch, possibly the best Canadian attorney anywhere.”
“Jacqueline Bart at BartLAW is our most highly regarded Canadian Corporate Immigration Lawyer this year . She provides ‘detailed advice’ and is a ‘real pleasure to work with’ according to our sources.”
When Canada introduced the eTA for entry to Canada, I knew I would be barred future entry due to a 30-year old criminal conviction. I decided to seek legal advice and, by sheer luck, found Jacqueline Bart of immigration law firm, BARTLAW. Jacqueline recommended I apply for rehabilitation from the Canadian government. Her associate lawyer, Annsley Kesten, presented a strong and thorough application on my behalf, vetting all testimonials and suggesting areas and documentary proof that would strengthen my case. Not only did Jacqueline and Annsley support me during the whole process, they also gave strong encouragement not to give up. After two years my rehabilitation was approved, something that I believe would never have happened without their professional insight and robust efforts. I am truly grateful to them both.